This work provides a review of theories of properties of high energy density matter originating in heavy-ion high energy collisions (GeV/nucleus). The work contains an introduction to the extreme state of matter called quark-gluon plasma, quantum statistical mechanics, and theory of longitudinally boost-invariantly expanding fireball of a hot matter.
Particular intention is given to the blast-wave model with resonances, whose basic assumptions are longitudinally boost-invariant expansion, transverse expansion, and the existence of a particular hypersurface in space-time, on which hadronic matter abruptly decouples from fireball.
In the final part two most important parameters of the blast-wave model are extracted from fits to the transverse momentum spectra obtained from STAR experiment, using a modification of the program DRAGON [B. Tomasik, Comp.Phys.Commun. 180 (2009) 1642-1653].
ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions, logitudinally boost-invariat expanding fireball, Blastwave model, transverse momentum spectra, DRAGON